Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(Amounts in Millions, Except Per Share Amounts)
assets, as the principal asset we typically acquire is creative talent. As a result, a substantial portion of the purchase price is allocated to goodwill and other intangible assets.
We review goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization as of October 1st each year and whenever events or significant changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. We evaluate the recoverability of goodwill at a reporting unit level. We have 13 reporting units that were subject to the 2014 annual impairment testing. Our annual impairment review as of October 1, 2014 did not result in an impairment charge for any of our reporting units.
During 2012, we adopted new authoritative guidance for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, respectively, which permits an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is “more likely than not” that the goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets are impaired. Qualitative factors to consider may include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors that may have a negative effect on earnings, financial performance, and other relevant entity-specific events such as changes in management, key personnel, strategy or clients, as well as pending litigation. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances such as those described above, an entity determines that it is "more likely than not" that the goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired, then the entity is required to determine the fair value and perform the quantitative impairment test by comparing the fair value with the carrying value. Otherwise, no additional testing is required.
For reporting units not included in the qualitative assessment, or for any reporting units identified in the qualitative assessment as "more likely than not" that the fair value is less than its carrying value, the first step of the quantitative impairment test is performed. For our annual impairment test, we compare the respective fair value of our reporting units' equity to the carrying value of their net assets. The first step is a comparison of the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. The sum of the fair values of all our reporting units is reconciled to our current market capitalization plus an estimated control premium. Goodwill allocated to a reporting unit whose fair value is equal to or greater than its carrying value is not impaired, and no further testing is required. Should the carrying amount for a reporting unit exceed its fair value, then the first step of the quantitative impairment test is failed and the magnitude of any goodwill impairment is determined under the second step, which is a comparison of the implied fair value of a reporting unit's goodwill to its carrying value. The implied fair value of goodwill is the excess of the fair value of the reporting unit over its carrying value, excluding goodwill. Impaired goodwill is written down to its implied fair value with a charge to expense in the period the impairment is identified.
The fair value of a reporting unit for 2014 and 2013 was estimated using a combination of the income approach, which incorporates the use of the discounted cash flow method, and the market approach, which incorporates the use of earnings and revenue multiples based on market data.
We review intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization whenever events or circumstances indicate that a carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of these assets is determined by comparing the carrying value of these assets to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by these assets. These assets are impaired when their carrying value exceeds their fair value. Impaired intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization are written down to their fair value with a charge to expense in the period the impairment is identified. Intangible assets with definite lives are amortized on a straight-line basis with estimated useful lives generally between 7 and 15 years. Events or circumstances that might require impairment testing include the loss of a significant client, the identification of other impaired assets within a reporting unit, loss of key personnel, the disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit, significant decline in stock price or a significant adverse change in business climate or regulations.
The functional currency of our foreign operations is generally their respective local currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, and revenues and expenses are translated at the average exchange rates during the period presented. The resulting translation adjustments are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in the stockholders’ equity section of our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Currency transaction gains or losses primarily arising from transactions in currencies other than the functional currency are included in office and general expenses. Foreign currency transactions resulted in a pre-tax loss of $1.4 in 2014 , a pre-tax loss of $0.6 in 2013 and a pre-tax gain $1.2 in 2012.
We monitor the currencies of countries in which we operate in order to determine if the country should be considered a highly inflationary environment. A currency is determined to be highly inflationary when there is cumulative inflation of approximately 100% or more over a three-year period. If this occurs the functional currency of that country would be changed to our reporting currency, the U.S. Dollar, and foreign exchange gains or losses would be recognized on all monetary transactions, assets and liabilities in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar until the currency is no longer considered highly inflationary.