Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - (continued)
(Amounts in Millions, Except Per Share Amounts)
the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In July 2015, the FASB affirmed its proposal to delay the effective date of the new standard by one year to January 1, 2018, with early adoption to be permitted as of the original effective date of January 1, 2017.
The new standard includes a number of changes compared to the current standard, the most significant to IPG is the requirement to estimate the amount of variable consideration, included in our contracts, that will most likely be earned and recognize that consideration over the term of the contract. This will likely result in an acceleration in revenue recognition for certain variable contract incentives. While we are still assessing what impact the adoption of the amended guidance will have on our Consolidated Financial Statements, we expect that the primary impact of the change will be in the timing of revenue recognition within the quarters of a fiscal year. We have not yet determined the date or method of transition that we will select.
The provision for income taxes includes U.S. federal, state, local and foreign taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the year in which the temporary differences are expected to be reversed. Changes to enacted tax rates would result in either increases or decreases in the provision for income taxes in the period of change.
We are required to evaluate the realizability of our deferred tax assets, which is primarily dependent on future earnings. A valuation allowance shall be recognized when, based on available evidence, it is “more likely than not” that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The factors used in assessing valuation allowances include all available evidence, such as past operating results, estimates of future taxable income and the feasibility of tax planning strategies. In circumstances where there is negative evidence, establishment of a valuation allowance must be considered. We believe that cumulative losses in the most recent three-year period represent significant negative evidence when evaluating a decision to establish a valuation allowance. Conversely, a pattern of sustained profitability represents significant positive evidence when evaluating a decision to reverse a valuation allowance. Further, in those cases where a pattern of sustained profitability exists, projected future taxable income may also represent positive evidence, to the extent that such projections are determined to be reliable given the current economic environment. Accordingly, the increase and decrease of valuation allowances has had and could have a significant negative or positive impact on our current and future earnings.
The authoritative guidance for uncertainty in income taxes prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement criteria for the financial statement reporting of a tax position that an entity takes or expects to take in a tax return. Additionally, guidance is provided for de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. The assessment of recognition and measurement requires critical estimates and the use of complex judgments. We evaluate our tax positions using the “more likely than not” recognition threshold and then apply a measurement assessment to those positions that meet the recognition threshold. We have established tax reserves that we believe to be adequate in relation to the potential for additional assessments in each of the jurisdictions in which we are subject to taxation. We regularly assess the likelihood of additional tax assessments in those jurisdictions and adjust our reserves as additional information or events require.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
We account for our business combinations using the acquisition accounting method, which requires us to determine the fair value of net assets acquired and the related goodwill and other intangible assets. Determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires management's judgment and involves the use of significant estimates, including projections of future cash inflows and outflows, discount rates, asset lives and market multiples. Considering the characteristics of advertising, specialized marketing and communication services companies, our acquisitions usually do not have significant amounts of tangible assets, as the principal asset we typically acquire is creative talent. As a result, a substantial portion of the purchase price is allocated to goodwill and other intangible assets.
We review goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization as of October 1st each year and whenever events or significant changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. We evaluate the recoverability of goodwill at a reporting unit level. We have 12 reporting units that were subject to the 2015 annual impairment testing. Our annual impairment review as of October 1, 2015 did not result in an impairment charge at any of our reporting units.
In performing our annual impairment review, we first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is “more likely than not” that the goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets are impaired. Qualitative factors to consider may include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors that may have a negative effect on earnings, financial performance, and other relevant entity-specific events such as changes in management, key personnel, strategy or clients, as well as pending litigation. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances such as those described above, an entity determines that it is "more likely than not" that the goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired, then the entity is required to determine