Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - (continued)
(Amounts in Millions, Except Per Share Amounts)
We also have uncommitted credit facilities with various banks that permit borrowings at variable interest rates. As of December 31, 2016, there were borrowings under some of the uncommitted facilities to manage working capital needs. We have guaranteed the repayment of some of these borrowings made by certain subsidiaries. If we lose access to these credit lines, we would have to provide funding directly to some of our international operations. The weighted-average interest rate on outstanding balances under the uncommitted credit facilities was approximately 3% as of December 31, 2016 and 2015.
We aggregate our domestic cash position on a daily basis. Outside the United States, we use cash pooling arrangements with banks to help manage our liquidity requirements. In these pooling arrangements, several IPG agencies agree with a single bank that the cash balances of any of the agencies with the bank will be subject to a full right of set-off against amounts other agencies owe the bank, and the bank provides for overdrafts as long as the net balance for all the agencies does not exceed an agreed-upon level. Typically, each agency pays interest on outstanding overdrafts and receives interest on cash balances. Our Consolidated Balance Sheets reflect cash, net of bank overdrafts, under all of our pooling arrangements, and as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 the amounts netted were $1,300.6 and $1,608.3, respectively.
DEBT CREDIT RATINGS
Our long-term debt credit ratings as of February 10, 2017 are listed below.
S&P Global Ratings
We are rated investment-grade by Moody's Investors Service, S&P Global Ratings and Fitch Ratings. The most recent updates to our credit ratings occurred in July 2016 when Fitch Ratings revised our outlook from 'Stable' to 'Positive' and in April 2016 when Moody's Investors Service upgraded our rating from Baa3 to Baa2 and S&P Global Ratings revised our outlook from 'Stable' to 'Positive'. A credit rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and may be subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning credit rating agency. The rating of each credit rating agency should be evaluated independently of any other rating. Credit ratings could have an impact on liquidity, either adverse or favorable, including, among other things, because they could affect funding costs in the capital markets or otherwise. For example, our Credit Agreement fees and borrowing rates are based on a credit ratings grid.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
Our Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures requires us to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the accompanying financial statements and footnotes. Our significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. We believe that of our significant accounting policies, the following critical accounting estimates involve management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments. We consider these accounting estimates to be critical because changes in the underlying assumptions or estimates have the potential to materially impact our Consolidated Financial Statements. Management has discussed with our Audit Committee the development, selection, application and disclosure of these critical accounting estimates. We regularly evaluate our judgments, assumptions and estimates based on historical experience and various other factors that we believe to be relevant under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Our revenues are primarily derived from the planning and execution of multi-channel advertising, marketing and communications programs around the world. Most of our client contracts are individually negotiated and, accordingly, the terms of client engagements and the bases on which we earn commissions and fees vary significantly. Our client contracts are complex arrangements that may include provisions for incentive compensation and vendor rebates and credits. Our largest clients are multinational entities, and, as such, we often provide services to these clients out of multiple offices and across many of our agencies. In arranging for such services, it is possible that we will enter into global, regional and local agreements. Agreements of this nature are reviewed by legal counsel to determine the governing terms to be followed by the offices and agencies involved. Critical judgments and estimates are involved in determining both the amount and timing of revenue recognition under these arrangements.
Revenue for our services is recognized when all of the following criteria are satisfied: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (ii) the price is fixed or determinable; (iii) collectability is reasonably assured; and (iv) services have been performed.