Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(Amounts in Millions, Except Per Share Amounts)
assets, as the principal asset we typically acquire is creative talent. As a result, a substantial portion of the purchase price is allocated to goodwill and other intangible assets.
We review goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization as of October 1st each year and whenever events or significant changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. We evaluate the recoverability of goodwill at a reporting unit level. We have 11 reporting units that were subject to the 2016 annual impairment testing. Our annual impairment review as of October 1, 2016 did not result in an impairment charge for any of our reporting units.
For reporting units not included in the qualitative assessment, or for any reporting units identified in the qualitative assessment as "more likely than not" that the fair value is less than its carrying value, the first step of the quantitative impairment test is performed. For our annual impairment test, we compare the respective fair value of our reporting units' equity to the carrying value of their net assets. The first step is a comparison of the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. The sum of the fair values of all our reporting units is reconciled to our current market capitalization plus an estimated control premium. Goodwill allocated to a reporting unit whose fair value is equal to or greater than its carrying value is not impaired, and no further testing is required. Should the carrying amount for a reporting unit exceed its fair value, then the first step of the quantitative impairment test is failed and the magnitude of any goodwill impairment is determined under the second step, which is a comparison of the implied fair value of a reporting unit's goodwill to its carrying value. The implied fair value of goodwill is the excess of the fair value of the reporting unit over its carrying value, excluding goodwill. Impaired goodwill is written down to its implied fair value with a charge to expense in the period the impairment is identified.
The fair value of a reporting unit for 2016 and 2015 was estimated using a combination of the income approach, which incorporates the use of the discounted cash flow method, and the market approach, which incorporates the use of earnings and revenue multiples based on market data.
We review intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization whenever events or circumstances indicate that a carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of these assets is determined by comparing the carrying value of these assets to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by these assets. These assets are impaired when their carrying value exceeds their fair value. Impaired intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization are written down to their fair value with a charge to expense in the period the impairment is identified. Intangible assets with definite lives are amortized on a straight-line basis with estimated useful lives generally between 7 and 15 years. Events or circumstances that might require impairment testing include the loss of a significant client, the identification of other impaired assets within a reporting unit, loss of key personnel, the disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit, significant decline in stock price or a significant adverse change in business climate or regulations.
The functional currency of our foreign operations is generally their respective local currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, and revenues and expenses are translated at the average exchange rates during the period presented. The resulting translation adjustments are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in the stockholders’ equity section of our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Currency transaction gains or losses primarily arising from transactions in currencies other than the functional currency are included in office and general expenses. Foreign currency transactions resulted in pre-tax gains of $2.1 and $2.0 in 2016 and 2015, respectively, and a pre-tax loss of $1.4 in 2014.
We monitor the currencies of countries in which we operate in order to determine if the country should be considered a highly inflationary environment. A currency is determined to be highly inflationary when there is cumulative inflation of approximately 100% or more over a three-year period. If this occurs the functional currency of that country would be changed to our reporting currency, the U.S. Dollar, and foreign exchange gains or losses would be recognized on all monetary transactions, assets and liabilities in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar until the currency is no longer considered highly inflationary.
The provision for income taxes includes U.S. federal, state, local and foreign taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the year in which the temporary differences are expected to be reversed. We evaluate the realizability of our deferred tax assets and establish a valuation allowance when it is “more likely than not” that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. We evaluate our tax positions using the “more likely than not” recognition threshold and then apply a measurement assessment to those positions that meet the recognition threshold. The factors used in assessing valuation allowances include all available evidence, such as past operating results, estimates of future taxable income and the feasibility of tax planning strategies. We have established tax reserves that we believe to be adequate in relation to the potential for additional assessments in each of the jurisdictions in which we are subject to taxation. We regularly