Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - (continued)
(Amounts in Millions, Except Per Share Amounts)
Three months ended
Expenses as % of revenue:
Salaries and related expenses
Office and general expenses
Net income available to IPG common stockholders
Earnings per share available to IPG common stockholders:
When we analyze period-to-period changes in our operating performance, we determine the portion of the change that is attributable to changes in foreign currency rates and the net effect of acquisitions and divestitures, and the remainder we call organic change, which indicates how our underlying business performed. The performance metrics that we use to evaluate our results include the organic change in revenue, salaries and related expenses, and office and general expenses, and the components of operating expenses expressed as a percentage of total consolidated revenue. Additionally, in certain of our discussions we analyze revenue by geographic region and also by business sector, in which we focus on our top 100 clients, which typically constitute approximately 55% to 60% of our annual consolidated revenues.
The change in our operating performance attributable to changes in foreign currency rates is determined by converting the prior-period reported results using the current-period exchange rates and comparing these prior-period adjusted amounts to the prior-period reported results. Although the U.S. Dollar is our reporting currency, a substantial portion of our revenues and expenses are generated in foreign currencies. Therefore, our reported results are affected by fluctuations in the currencies in which we conduct our international businesses. Our exposure is mitigated as the majority of our revenues and expenses in any given market are generally denominated in the same currency. Both positive and negative currency fluctuations against the U.S. Dollar affect our consolidated results of operations, and the magnitude of the foreign currency impact to our operations related to each geographic region depends on the significance and operating performance of the region. The foreign currency that most adversely impacted our results during the first quarter of 2017 was the British Pound Sterling, partially offset by the Brazilian Real.
For purposes of analyzing changes in our operating performance attributable to the net effect of acquisitions and divestitures, transactions are treated as if they occurred on the first day of the quarter during which the transaction occurred. During the past few years, we have acquired companies that we believe will enhance our offerings and disposed of businesses that are not consistent with our strategic plan.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Consolidated Results of Operations – Three Months Ended March 31, 2017 Compared to Three Months Ended March 31, 2016
Our revenue is directly impacted by the retention and spending levels of existing clients and by our ability to win new clients. Most of our expenses are recognized ratably throughout the year and are therefore less seasonal than revenue. Our revenue is typically lowest in the first quarter and highest in the fourth quarter, reflecting the seasonal spending of our clients, incentives earned at year end on various contracts and project work completed that is typically recognized during the fourth quarter. In the events marketing business, revenues can fluctuate due to the timing of completed projects, as revenue is typically recognized when the project is complete. When we act as principal for these projects, we record the gross amount billed to the client as revenue, and the related costs are incurred as pass-through costs in office and general expenses.