Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - (continued)
(Amounts in Millions, Except Per Share Amounts)
The table below sets forth the financial covenants in effect as of March 31, 2017.
Four Quarters Ended
Four Quarters Ended
March 31, 2017
March 31, 2017
Interest coverage ratio (not less than) 1
Actual interest coverage ratio
Leverage ratio (not greater than) 1
Depreciation and amortization
Actual leverage ratio
The interest coverage ratio is defined as EBITDA, as defined in the Credit Agreement, to net interest expense for the four quarters then ended. The leverage ratio is defined as debt as of the last day of such fiscal quarter to EBITDA for the four quarters then ended.
We also have uncommitted lines of credit with various banks that permit borrowings at variable interest rates. As of March 31, 2017, there were borrowings under some of the uncommitted lines of credit to fund working capital needs. We have guaranteed the repayment of some of these borrowings made by certain subsidiaries. If we lose access to these credit lines, we would have to provide funding directly to some of our international operations. As of March 31, 2017, the weighted-average interest rate on outstanding balances of our international operations under the uncommitted lines of credit was approximately 4%.
We aggregate our domestic cash position on a daily basis. Outside the United States, we use cash pooling arrangements with banks to help manage our liquidity requirements. In these pooling arrangements, several IPG agencies agree with a single bank that the cash balances of any of the agencies with the bank will be subject to a full right of set-off against amounts that other agencies owe the bank, and the bank provides for overdrafts as long as the net balance for all the agencies does not exceed an agreed-upon level. Typically, each agency pays interest on outstanding overdrafts and receives interest on cash balances. Our unaudited Consolidated Balance Sheets reflect cash, net of bank overdrafts, under all of our pooling arrangements, and as of March 31, 2017, the amount netted was $1,466.3.
DEBT CREDIT RATINGS
Our long-term debt credit ratings as of April 14, 2017, are listed below.
S&P Global Ratings
We are rated investment-grade by Moody's Investors Service, S&P Global Ratings and Fitch Ratings. The most recent update to our credit ratings occurred in April 2017 when S&P Global Ratings upgraded our rating from BBB- to BBB with a Stable outlook. A credit rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and may be subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning credit rating agency. The rating of each credit rating agency should be evaluated independently of any other rating. Credit ratings could have an impact on liquidity, either adverse or favorable, because, among other things, they could affect funding costs in the capital markets or otherwise. For example, our Credit Agreement fees and borrowing rates are based on a credit ratings grid.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2016, included in our 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K. As summarized in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, in our Annual Report, we believe that certain of these policies are critical because they are important to the presentation of our financial condition and results of operations, and they require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to estimate the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. These critical estimates relate to revenue recognition, income taxes, goodwill and other intangible assets, and pension and postretirement benefits. We base our estimates on historical experience and various other factors that we believe to be relevant under the circumstances. Estimation methodologies are applied consistently from year to year, and there have been no significant changes in the application of critical accounting estimates since December 31, 2016. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.