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INTERPUBLIC GROUP OF COMPANIES, INC. filed this Form 8-K on 10/30/2017
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quarter. And clients have yet to be able to, or indicated that they will be pulling the trigger on those projects.

So therefore, it was appropriate for us to change our outlook, and a lot of that has to do with these large-scale projects, both in the digital side of the business and in our PR side of the business, which, as you know, are very much project-oriented. So that’s why I believe, going forward, there’s no question that the value added of these agencies are real, and clients will need to implement a lot of these projects as their environment gets competitive.
Ms. Quadrani:
Thank you. And just a quick follow-up, if I may, just about the longer-term outlook. Do you think - I believe you’re about to go into, or you will in November and December, the budgeting process, where you get a better sense of the outlook for 2018, so I’m sure it’s a bit too early to comment on what you’ll see then. But do you think there is any reason to assume the visibility will change, in the sense it will be more short-term in terms of knowing how ’18 is going to come? Or do you feel, when you go through the process, you should have a decent sense like you do every year?

Mr. Roth:
You’re always asking those questions, Alexia. They’re the right questions. It’s too soon for us to comment on ’18. Obviously, where we will focus on in our businesses is what the visibility and likelihood of the project. We can forecast agency-of-record type businesses. We know what’s in the contract, we know what the asks are, we know what the deliverables are, and, obviously, we do a bottoms-up analysis of it. And we’ll have to overlay our best guess on what happens to these projects.

And the good news is, these are not insignificant projects. They’re necessary for our clients. They’re key to the deliverables that we deliver with respect to the targeted growth of our clients. So I believe they will come onstream. The difficulty with doing this quarter-to-quarter, as I’ve always said, is clients don’t pay attention to our quarters. And we will do whatever we can to help them see the light in terms of the value of these projects. But it’s too soon for us to say how that’s going to shake out in ’18.

Ms. Quadrani:
Thank you very much.

Mr. Roth:
Thank you.

Thank you. Our next question is from John Janedis of Jefferies. Your line’s open.

John Janedis, Jefferies:
Hi, thank you. Michael, maybe two questions. One is just on APAC. It’s been a little bit challenging this year. When you think about the region of, say, India and China, in particular, has your longer-term outlook there changed? I know you have a lot of multinational clients, but have local players shifted money to local agencies? And then, separately, it seems like a bit of an unusual year from a project perspective. We tend not to hear much about it until the fourth quarter. So I was wondering, is there any read-through from project business from, say, the prior three quarters and the fourth quarter?