Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (continued)
(Amounts in Millions, Except Per Share Amounts)
Note 6: Income Taxes
For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, our effective income tax rates of 22.1% and 30.7%, respectively, were positively impacted by a benefit of $31.2 related to foreign tax credits from distributions of unremitted earnings, partially offset by losses in certain foreign jurisdictions where we receive no tax benefit due to 100% valuation allowances and by losses on sales of businesses, and the classification of certain assets as held for sale, for which we did not receive a full tax benefit. For the nine months ended September 30, 2017, our effective income tax rate was positively impacted by excess tax benefits on employee share-based payments, the majority of which is typically recognized in the first quarter due to the timing of the vesting of awards.
We have various tax years under examination by tax authorities in various countries, and in various states, such as New York, in which we have significant business operations. It is not yet known whether these examinations will, in the aggregate, result in our paying additional taxes. We believe our tax reserves are adequate in relation to the potential for additional assessments in each of the jurisdictions in which we are subject to taxation. We regularly assess the likelihood of additional tax assessments in those jurisdictions and, if necessary, adjust our reserves as additional information or events require.
With respect to all tax years open to examination by U.S. federal, various state and local, and non-U.S. tax authorities, we currently anticipate that total unrecognized tax benefits will decrease by an amount between $25.0 and $35.0 in the next twelve months, a portion of which will affect our effective income tax rate, primarily as a result of the settlement of tax examinations and the lapsing of statutes of limitations.
We are effectively settled with respect to U.S. federal income tax audits through 2012, with the exception of 2009. With limited exceptions, we are no longer subject to state and local income tax audits for years prior to 2007 or non-U.S. income tax audits for years prior to 2006.
Note 7: Incentive Compensation Plans
We issue stock-based compensation and cash awards to our employees under a plan established by the Compensation and Leadership Talent Committee of the Board of Directors (the “Compensation Committee”) and approved by our shareholders.
We issued the following stock-based awards under the 2014 Performance Incentive Plan (the "2014 PIP") during the nine months ended September 30, 2017.
grant-date fair value
Total stock-based compensation awards
During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, the Compensation Committee granted performance cash awards and restricted cash awards under the 2014 PIP with a total target value of $54.3 and $2.8, respectively. Cash awards are expensed over the vesting period, which is typically three years.
Note 8: Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss, Net of Tax
The following tables present the changes in accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax, by component.
Defined Benefit Pension and Other Postretirement Plans
Balance as of December 31, 2016
Other comprehensive income before reclassifications
Amount reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
Balance as of September 30, 2017